SONET/SDH - MCQs

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Multiple choice questions for SONET/SDH
This particular topic discuss the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) which is a standard developed by ANSI for fiber-optic networks while the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is a similar standard developed by ITU-T. If you skip the summary and important terminology visit SONET/SDH .

Begin and Good luck!
  1. In SONET each frame lasts _______ microseconds.
    • A)   20
    • B)   64
    • C)   125
    • D)   none of the above
  2. A linear SONET network can be __________.
    • A)   multipoint
    • B)   point-to-point
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  3. The path overhead consists of ______ bytes.
    • A)   18
    • B)   9
    • C)   6
    • D)   1
  4. _______ is a standard developed by ITU-T.
    • A)   SONET
    • B)   SDH
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  5. A ______ is the portion of the network between two multiplexers.
    • A)   line
    • B)   path
    • C)   section
    • D)   none of the above
  6. A ________ is a repeater.
    • A)   ADM
    • B)   regenerator
    • C)   STS multiplexer/demultiplexer
    • D)   none of the above
  7. The ______ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a physical section.
    • A)   path
    • B)   section
    • C)   photonic
    • D)   line
  8. In ______ APS, there is one working line and one protection line. The data are normally sent on the working line until it fails.
    • A)   one-to-one
    • B)   one-plus-one
    • C)   one-to-many
    • D)   none of the above
  9. Line overhead consists of ________ bytes.
    • A)   18
    • B)   9
    • C)   6
    • D)   1
  10. In SONET, for each frame, the bytes are transmitted __________.
    • A)   from left to the right, bottom to top
    • B)   from left to the right, top to bottom
    • C)   from right to the left, top to bottom
    • D)   from right to the left, bottom to top
  11. Each ________in a SONET frame can carry a digitized voice channel.
    • A)   frame
    • B)   bit
    • C)   byte
    • D)   none of the above
  12. An STS-1 frame is made ______columns.
    • A)   90
    • B)   9
    • C)   1
    • D)   none of the above
  13. The ______ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal from its optical source to its optical destination.
    • A)   line
    • B)   path
    • C)   photonic
    • D)   section
  14. The ____ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a physical line.
    • A)   line
    • B)   path
    • C)   photonic
    • D)   section
  15. An STS multiplexer is a ______ device.
    • A)   four-layer
    • B)   three-layer
    • C)   two-layer
    • D)   one-layer
  16. A ring SONET network can be _________.
    • A)   bidirectional
    • B)   unidirectional
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  17. _______ is a standard developed by ANSI for fiber-optic networks.
    • A)   SDH
    • B)   SONET
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  18. An add/drop multiplexer is a ______ device.
    • A)   four-layer
    • B)   three-layer
    • C)   two-layer
    • D)   one-layer
  19. In SONET, for each byte, the bits are transmitted ____________.
    • A)   from most significant to the least significant
    • B)   from least significant to the most significant
    • C)   three at a time
    • D)   two at a time
  20. A _______ is the optical link connecting two neighbor devices.
    • A)   path
    • B)   line
    • C)   section
    • D)   none of the above
  21. A ______is the end-to-end portion of the network between two STS multiplexers.
    • A)   line
    • B)   path
    • C)   section
    • D)   none of the above
  22. The _______ layer corresponds to the physical layer of the OSI model.
    • A)   photonic
    • B)   path
    • C)   line
    • D)   section
  23. SONET is a _______ TDM system.
    • A)   statistical
    • B)   asynchronous
    • C)   synchronous
    • D)   none of the above
  24. An STS-3 frame is made of ______ rows.
    • A)   27
    • B)   9
    • C)   1
    • D)   none of the above
  25. SONET defines _______ layers.
    • A)   five
    • B)   four
    • C)   three
    • D)   two
  26. In ________ APS, there are normally two lines: one working line and one protection line. Both lines are active all the time.
    • A)   one-to-one
    • B)   one-to-many
    • C)   one-plus-one
    • D)   none of the above
  27. __________ allow insertion and extraction of signals.
    • A)   STS multiplexer/demultiplexers
    • B)   regenerators
    • C)   ADMs
    • D)   none of the above
  28. An STS-3 frame is made of ________ columns.
    • A)   270
    • B)   90
    • C)   9
    • D)   none of the above
  29. SONET has defined a hierarchy of signals called ________.
    • A)   STMs
    • B)   STSs
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  30. An ______ signal is the optical modulation of an STS-n (or STM-n) signal.
    • A)   FDM-n
    • B)   OC-n
    • C)   TDM-n
    • D)   none of the above
  31. A regenerator is a ________ device.
    • A)   three-layer
    • B)   one-layer
    • C)   two-layer
    • D)   four-layer
  32. An STS-1 frame is made of ________ rows
    • A)   90
    • B)   9
    • C)   1
    • D)   none of the above
  33. SDH has defined a hierarchy of signals called ________.
    • A)   STMs
    • B)   STSs
    • C)   either (a) or (b)
    • D)   neither (a) nor (b)
  34. To make SONET backward-compatible with the current hierarchy, its frame design includes a system of ____.
    • A)   VTs
    • B)   STSs
    • C)   STMs
    • D)   OCs
  35. SONET network topologies can be __________.
    • A)   ring
    • B)   mesh
    • C)   linear
    • D)   all of the above
  36. SONET sends ________ frames per second.
    • A)   8000
    • B)   4000
    • C)   2000
    • D)   1000
  37. A SONET system can use _________.
    • A)   regenerators
    • B)   add/drop multiplexers
    • C)   STS multiplexers
    • D)   all of the above
  38. In ________APS, there is only one protection line for many working lines. When a failure occurs in one of the working lines, the protection line takes control until the failed line is repaired.
    • A)   one-to-one
    • B)   one-plus-one
    • C)   one-to-many
    • D)   none of the above
  39. The section overhead consists of ______octets.
    • A)   18
    • B)   9
    • C)   6
    • D)   1

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